Important

This is the latest documentation for the unstable development branch of Project ACRN (master).
Use the drop-down menu on the left to select documentation for a stable release such as v3.1 or v3.0.

CPU Virtualization

../../_images/hld-image47.png

Figure 86 ACRN Hypervisor CPU Virtualization Components

The following sections discuss the major modules (indicated above in blue) in the CPU virtualization overview shown in Figure 86.

Based on Intel VT-x virtualization technology, ACRN emulates a virtual CPU (vCPU) with the following methods:

  • core partition: one vCPU is dedicated and associated with one physical CPU (pCPU), making much of the hardware register emulation simply passthrough. This method provides good isolation for physical interrupts and guest execution. (See Static CPU Partitioning for more information.)

  • core sharing (to be added): two or more vCPUs share one physical CPU (pCPU). A more complicated context switch is needed between different vCPUs’ switching. This method provides flexible computing resources sharing for low-performance demand vCPU tasks. (See Flexible CPU Sharing for more information.)

  • simple schedule: a well-designed scheduler framework that allows ACRN to adopt different scheduling policies, such as the noop and round-robin:

    • noop scheduler: only two thread loops are maintained for a CPU: a vCPU thread and a default idle thread. A CPU runs most of the time in the vCPU thread for emulating a guest CPU, switching between VMX root mode and non-root mode. A CPU schedules out to default idle when an operation needs it to stay in VMX root mode, such as when waiting for an I/O request from the Device Model (DM) or when ready to destroy.

    • round-robin scheduler (to be added): allows more vCPU thread loops to run on a CPU. A CPU switches among different vCPU threads and default idle threads as it runs out corresponding timeslices or necessary scheduling outs such as waiting for an I/O request. A vCPU can yield itself as well, such as when it executes a “PAUSE” instruction.

Static CPU Partitioning

CPU partitioning is a policy for mapping a virtual CPU (vCPU) to a physical CPU. To enable this feature, the ACRN hypervisor can configure a noop scheduler as the schedule policy for this physical CPU.

ACRN then forces a fixed 1:1 mapping between a vCPU and this physical CPU when creating a vCPU for the guest operating system. This makes the vCPU management code much simpler.

ACRN uses the cpu_affinity parameter in vm config to decide which physical CPU to map to a vCPU in a VM, then finalizes the fixed mapping. When launching a User VM, need to choose pCPUs from the VM’s cpu_affinity that are not used by any other VMs.

Flexible CPU Sharing

To enable CPU sharing, the ACRN hypervisor can configure the BVT (Borrowed Virtual Time) scheduler policy.

The cpu_affinity parameter in vm config indicates all the physical CPUs on which this VM is allowed to run. A pCPU can be shared among a Service VM and any User VM as long as the local APIC passthrough is not enabled in that User VM.

See Enable CPU Sharing for more information.

CPU Management in the Service VM Under Static CPU Partitioning

With ACRN, all ACPI table entries are passthrough to the Service VM, including the Multiple Interrupt Controller Table (MADT). The Service VM sees all physical CPUs by parsing the MADT when the Service VM kernel boots. All physical CPUs are initially assigned to the Service VM by creating the same number of virtual CPUs.

After the Service VM boots, it releases the physical CPUs intended for User VM use.

Here is an example flow of CPU allocation on a multi-core platform.

../../_images/static-core-image2.png

Figure 87 CPU Allocation on a Multi-core Platform

CPU Management in the Service VM Under Flexible CPU Sharing

The Service VM sees all physical CPUs via the MADT, as described in CPU Management in the Service VM Under Static CPU Partitioning. However, the Service VM does not release the physical CPUs intended for User VM use.

CPU Management in the User VM

The cpu_affinity parameter in vm config defines a set of pCPUs that a User VM is allowed to run on. The Device Model can launch a User VM on only a subset of the pCPUs or on all pCPUs listed in cpu_affinity, but it cannot assign any pCPU that is not included in it.

CPU Assignment Management in the Hypervisor

The physical CPU assignment is predefined by cpu_affinity in vm config, while post-launched VMs could be launched on pCPUs that are a subset of it.

The ACRN hypervisor does not support virtual CPU migration to different physical CPUs. No changes to the mapping of the virtual CPU to physical CPU can happen without first calling offline_vcpu.

vCPU Lifecycle

A vCPU lifecycle is shown in Figure 88 below, where the major states are:

  • VCPU_INIT: vCPU is in an initialized state, and its vCPU thread is not ready to run on its associated CPU.

  • VCPU_RUNNING: vCPU is running, and its vCPU thread is ready (in the queue) or running on its associated CPU.

  • VCPU_PAUSED: vCPU is paused, and its vCPU thread is not running on its associated CPU.

  • VPCU_ZOMBIE: vCPU is transitioning to an offline state, and its vCPU thread is not running on its associated CPU.

  • VPCU_OFFLINE: vCPU is offline.

../../_images/hld-image17.png

Figure 88 ACRN vCPU State Transitions

The following functions are used to drive the state machine of the vCPU lifecycle:

int32_t create_vcpu(uint16_t pcpu_id, struct acrn_vm *vm, struct acrn_vcpu **rtn_vcpu_handle)

create a vcpu for the target vm

Creates/allocates a vCPU instance, with initialization for its vcpu_id, vpid, vmcs, vlapic, etc. It sets the init vCPU state to VCPU_INIT

Parameters
  • pcpu_id[in] created vcpu will run on this pcpu

  • vm[in] pointer to vm data structure, this vcpu will owned by this vm.

  • rtn_vcpu_handle[out] pointer to the created vcpu

Returns

0 – vcpu created successfully, other values failed.

void zombie_vcpu(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu, enum vcpu_state new_state)

pause the vcpu and set new state

Change a vCPU state to VCPU_ZOMBIE, and make a reschedule request for it.

Parameters
  • vcpu[inout] pointer to vcpu data structure

  • new_state[in] the state to set vcpu

Returns

None

void reset_vcpu(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu, enum reset_mode mode)

reset vcpu state and values

Reset all fields in a vCPU instance, the vCPU state is reset to VCPU_INIT.

Preconditions

vcpu != NULL

Preconditions

vcpu->state == VCPU_ZOMBIE

Parameters
  • vcpu[inout] pointer to vcpu data structure

  • mode[in] the reset mode

Returns

None

void offline_vcpu(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu)

unmap the vcpu with pcpu and free its vlapic

Unmap the vcpu with pcpu and free its vlapic, and set the vcpu state to offline

Preconditions

vcpu != NULL

Preconditions

vcpu->state == VCPU_ZOMBIE

Parameters
  • vcpu[inout] pointer to vcpu data structure

Returns

None

vCPU Scheduling Under Static CPU Partitioning

../../_images/hld-image35.png

Figure 89 ACRN vCPU Scheduling Flow Under Static CPU Partitioning

For static CPU partitioning, ACRN implements a simple scheduling mechanism based on two threads: vcpu_thread and default_idle. A vCPU in the VCPU_RUNNING state always runs in a vcpu_thread loop. A vCPU in the VCPU_PAUSED or VCPU_ZOMBIE state runs in a default_idle loop. The behaviors in the vcpu_thread and default_idle threads are illustrated in Figure 89:

  • The vcpu_thread loop will do the loop of handling VM exits, and pending requests around the VM entry/exit. It will also check the reschedule request then schedule out to default_idle if necessary. See vCPU Thread for more details about vcpu_thread.

  • The default_idle loop simply does do_cpu_idle while also checking for need-offline and reschedule requests. If a CPU is marked as need-offline, it will go to cpu_dead. If a reschedule request is made for this CPU, it will schedule out to vcpu_thread if necessary.

  • The function make_reschedule_request drives the thread switch between vcpu_thread and default_idle.

Some example scenario flows are shown here:

../../_images/hld-image7.png

Figure 90 ACRN vCPU Scheduling Scenarios

  • During VM startup: after a vCPU is created, the bootstrap processor (BSP) calls launch_vcpu through start_vm. The application processor (AP) calls launch_vcpu through vLAPIC INIT-SIPI emulation. Finally, this vCPU runs in a vcpu_thread loop.

  • During VM shutdown: pause_vm function forces a vCPU running in vcpu_thread to schedule out to default_idle. The following reset_vcpu and offline_vcpu de-init and then offline this vCPU instance.

  • During IOReq handling: after an IOReq is sent to DM for emulation, a vCPU running in vcpu_thread schedules out to default_idle through acrn_insert_request_wait->pause_vcpu. After the DM completes the emulation for this IOReq, it calls hcall_notify_ioreq_finish->resume_vcpu and changes the vCPU schedule back to vcpu_thread to continue its guest execution.

vCPU Scheduling Under Flexible CPU Sharing

To be added.

vCPU Thread

The vCPU thread flow is a loop as shown and described below:

../../_images/hld-image68.png

Figure 91 ACRN vCPU Thread

  1. Check if vcpu_thread needs to schedule out to default_idle or other vcpu_thread by reschedule request. If needed, then schedule out to default_idle or other vcpu_thread.

  2. Handle pending request by calling acrn_handle_pending_request. (See Pending Request Handlers.)

  3. VM Enter by calling start/run_vcpu, then enter non-root mode to do guest execution.

  4. VM Exit from start/run_vcpu when the guest triggers a VM exit reason in non-root mode.

  5. Handle VM exit based on specific reason.

  6. Loop back to step 1.

vCPU Run Context

During a vCPU switch between root and non-root mode, the run context of the vCPU is saved and restored using this structure:

struct run_context

registers info saved for vcpu running context

The vCPU handles runtime context saving by three different categories:

  • Always save/restore during VM exit/entry:

    • These registers must be saved for each VM exit, and restored for each VM entry

    • Registers include: general purpose registers, CR2, and IA32_SPEC_CTRL

    • Definition in vcpu->run_context

    • Get/Set them through vcpu_get/set_xxx

  • On-demand cache/update during VM exit/entry:

    • These registers are used frequently. They should be cached from VMCS on first time access after a VM exit, and updated to VMCS on VM entry if marked dirty

    • Registers include: RSP, RIP, EFER, RFLAGS, CR0, and CR4

    • Definition in vcpu->run_context

    • Get/Set them through vcpu_get/set_xxx

  • Always read/write from/to VMCS:

    • These registers are rarely used. Access to them is always from/to VMCS.

    • Registers are in VMCS but not list in the two cases above.

    • No definition in vcpu->run_context

    • Get/Set them through VMCS API

For the first two categories above, ACRN provides these get/set APIs:

uint64_t vcpu_get_gpreg(const struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu, uint32_t reg)

get vcpu register value

Get target vCPU’s general purpose registers value in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[in] pointer to vcpu data structure

  • reg[in] register of the vcpu

Returns

the value of the register.

void vcpu_set_gpreg(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu, uint32_t reg, uint64_t val)

set vcpu register value

Set target vCPU’s general purpose registers value in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[inout] pointer to vcpu data structure

  • reg[in] register of the vcpu

  • val[in] the value set the register of the vcpu

Returns

None

uint64_t vcpu_get_rip(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu)

get vcpu RIP value

Get & cache target vCPU’s RIP in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[in] pointer to vcpu data structure

Returns

the value of RIP.

void vcpu_set_rip(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu, uint64_t val)

set vcpu RIP value

Update target vCPU’s RIP in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[inout] pointer to vcpu data structure

  • val[in] the value set RIP

Returns

None

uint64_t vcpu_get_rsp(const struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu)

get vcpu RSP value

Get & cache target vCPU’s RSP in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[in] pointer to vcpu data structure

Returns

the value of RSP.

void vcpu_set_rsp(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu, uint64_t val)

set vcpu RSP value

Update target vCPU’s RSP in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[inout] pointer to vcpu data structure

  • val[in] the value set RSP

Returns

None

uint64_t vcpu_get_efer(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu)

get vcpu EFER value

Get & cache target vCPU’s EFER in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[in] pointer to vcpu data structure

Returns

the value of EFER.

void vcpu_set_efer(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu, uint64_t val)

set vcpu EFER value

Update target vCPU’s EFER in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[inout] pointer to vcpu data structure

  • val[in] the value set EFER

Returns

None

uint64_t vcpu_get_rflags(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu)

get vcpu RFLAG value

Get & cache target vCPU’s RFLAGS in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[in] pointer to vcpu data structure

Returns

the value of RFLAGS.

void vcpu_set_rflags(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu, uint64_t val)

set vcpu RFLAGS value

Update target vCPU’s RFLAGS in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[inout] pointer to vcpu data structure

  • val[in] the value set RFLAGS

Returns

None

uint64_t vcpu_get_cr0(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu)

get vcpu CR0 value

Get & cache target vCPU’s CR0 in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[in] pointer to vcpu data structure

Returns

the value of CR0.

void vcpu_set_cr0(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu, uint64_t val)

set vcpu CR0 value

Update target vCPU’s CR0 in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[inout] pointer to vcpu data structure

  • val[in] the value set CR0

uint64_t vcpu_get_cr2(const struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu)

get vcpu CR2 value

Get & cache target vCPU’s CR2 in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[in] pointer to vcpu data structure

Returns

the value of CR2.

void vcpu_set_cr2(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu, uint64_t val)

set vcpu CR2 value

Update target vCPU’s CR2 in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[inout] pointer to vcpu data structure

  • val[in] the value set CR2

uint64_t vcpu_get_cr4(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu)

get vcpu CR4 value

Get & cache target vCPU’s CR4 in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[in] pointer to vcpu data structure

Returns

the value of CR4.

void vcpu_set_cr4(struct acrn_vcpu *vcpu, uint64_t val)

set vcpu CR4 value

Update target vCPU’s CR4 in run_context.

Parameters
  • vcpu[inout] pointer to vcpu data structure

  • val[in] the value set CR4

VM Exit Handlers

ACRN implements its VM exit handlers with a static table. Except for the exit reasons listed below, a default unhandled_vmexit_handler is used that will trigger an error message and return without handling:

VM Exit Reason

Handler

Description

VMX_EXIT_REASON_EXCEPTION_OR_NMI

exception_vmexit_handler

Only trap #MC, print error then inject back to guest

VMX_EXIT_REASON_EXTERNAL_INTERRUPT

external_interrupt_vmexit_handler

External interrupt handler for physical interrupt happening in non-root mode

VMX_EXIT_REASON_TRIPLE_FAULT

triple_fault_vmexit_handler

Handle triple fault from vCPU

VMX_EXIT_REASON_INIT_SIGNAL

init_signal_vmexit_handler

Handle INIT signal from vCPU

VMX_EXIT_REASON_INTERRUPT_WINDOW

interrupt_window_vmexit_handler

To support interrupt window if VID is disabled

VMX_EXIT_REASON_CPUID

cpuid_vmexit_handler

Handle CPUID access from guest

VMX_EXIT_REASON_VMCALL

vmcall_vmexit_handler

Handle hypercall from guest

VMX_EXIT_REASON_CR_ACCESS

cr_access_vmexit_handler

Handle CR registers access from guest

VMX_EXIT_REASON_IO_INSTRUCTION

pio_instr_vmexit_handler

Emulate I/O access with range in IO_BITMAP, which may have a handler in hypervisor (such as vUART or vPIC), or need to create an I/O request to DM

VMX_EXIT_REASON_RDMSR

rdmsr_vmexit_handler

Read MSR from guest in MSR_BITMAP

VMX_EXIT_REASON_WRMSR

wrmsr_vmexit_handler

Write MSR from guest in MSR_BITMAP

VMX_EXIT_REASON_APIC_ACCESS

apic_access_vmexit_handler

APIC access for APICv

VMX_EXIT_REASON_VIRTUALIZED_EOI

veoi_vmexit_handler

Trap vLAPIC EOI for specific vector with level trigger mode in vIOAPIC, required for supporting PTdev

VMX_EXIT_REASON_EPT_VIOLATION

ept_violation_vmexit_handler

MMIO emulation, which may have handler in hypervisor (such as vLAPIC or vIOAPIC), or need to create an I/O request to DM

VMX_EXIT_REASON_XSETBV

xsetbv_vmexit_handler

Set host owned XCR0 for supporting xsave

VMX_EXIT_REASON_APIC_WRITE

apic_write_vmexit_handler

APIC write for APICv

Details of each VM exit reason handler are described in other sections.

Pending Request Handlers

ACRN uses the function acrn_handle_pending_request to handle requests before VM entry in vcpu_thread.

A bitmap in the vCPU structure lists the different requests:

#define ACRN_REQUEST_EXCP 0U
#define ACRN_REQUEST_EVENT 1U
#define ACRN_REQUEST_EXTINT 2U
#define ACRN_REQUEST_NMI 3U
#define ACRN_REQUEST_EOI_EXIT_BITMAP_UPDATE 4U
#define ACRN_REQUEST_EPT_FLUSH 5U
#define ACRN_REQUEST_TRP_FAULT 6U
#define ACRN_REQUEST_VPID_FLUSH 7U /* flush vpid tlb */

ACRN provides the function vcpu_make_request to make different requests, set the bitmap of the corresponding request, and notify the target vCPU through the IPI if necessary (when the target vCPU is not running). See vCPU Request for Interrupt Injection for details.

void vcpu_make_request(struct vcpu *vcpu, uint16_t eventid)
{
   uint16_t pcpu_id = pcpuid_from_vcpu(vcpu);

   bitmap_set_lock(eventid, &vcpu->arch_vcpu.pending_req);
   /*
    * if current hostcpu is not the target vcpu's hostcpu, we need
    * to invoke IPI to wake up target vcpu
    *
    * TODO: Here we just compare with cpuid, since cpuid is
    *  global under pCPU / vCPU 1:1 mapping. If later we enabled vcpu
    *  scheduling, we need change here to determine it target vcpu is
    *  VMX non-root or root mode
    */
   if (get_cpu_id() != pcpu_id) {
           send_single_ipi(pcpu_id, VECTOR_NOTIFY_VCPU);
   }
}

The function acrn_handle_pending_request handles each request as shown below.

Request

Description

Request Maker

Request Handler

ACRN_REQUEST_EXCP

Request for exception injection

vcpu_inject_gp, vcpu_inject_pf, vcpu_inject_ud, vcpu_inject_ac, or vcpu_inject_ss and then queue corresponding exception by vcpu_queue_exception

vcpu_inject_hi_exception, vcpu_inject_lo_exception based on exception priority

ACRN_REQUEST_EVENT

Request for vLAPIC interrupt vector injection

vlapic_fire_lvt or vlapic_set_intr, which could be triggered by vlapic lvt, vioapic, or vmsi

vcpu_do_pending_event

ACRN_REQUEST_EXTINT

Request for extint vector injection

vcpu_inject_extint, triggered by vPIC

vcpu_do_pending_extint

ACRN_REQUEST_NMI

Request for nmi injection

vcpu_inject_nmi

Program VMX_ENTRY_INT_INFO_FIELD directly

ACRN_REQUEST_EOI_EXIT_BITMAP_UPDATE

Request for VEOI bitmap update for level triggered vector

vlapic_reset_tmr or vlapic_set_tmr change trigger mode in RTC

vcpu_set_vmcs_eoi_exit

ACRN_REQUEST_EPT_FLUSH

Request for EPT flush

ept_add_mr, ept_modify_mr, ept_del_mr, or vmx_write_cr0 disable cache

invept

ACRN_REQUEST_TRP_FAULT

Request for handling triple fault

vcpu_queue_exception meet triple fault

fatal error

ACRN_REQUEST_VPID_FLUSH

Request for VPID flush

None

flush_vpid_single

Note

Refer to the interrupt management chapter for request handling order for exception, nmi, and interrupts. For other requests such as tmr update, or EPT flush, there is no mandatory order.

VMX Initialization

ACRN attempts to initialize the vCPU’s VMCS before its first launch. ACRN sets the host state, execution control, guest state, entry control, and exit control, as shown in the table below.

The table briefly shows how each field is configured. The guest state field is critical for running a guest CPU based on different CPU modes.

For a guest vCPU’s state initialization:

  • If it’s BSP, the guest state configuration is done in software load, which can be initialized by different objects:

    • Service VM BSP: Hypervisor does context initialization in different software load based on different boot mode

    • User VM BSP: DM context initialization through hypercall

  • If it’s AP, it always starts from real mode, and the start vector always comes from vLAPIC INIT-SIPI emulation.

struct acrn_regs

registers info for vcpu.

VMX Domain

Fields

Bits

Description

host state

CS, DS, ES, FS, GS, TR, LDTR, GDTR, IDTR

n/a

According to host

MSR_IA32_PAT, MSR_IA32_EFER

n/a

According to host

CR0, CR3, CR4

n/a

According to host

RIP

n/a

Set to vm_exit pointer

IA32_SYSENTER_CS/ESP/EIP

n/a

Set to 0

execution control

VMX_PIN_VM_EXEC_CONTROLS

0

Enable external-interrupt exiting

7

Enable posted interrupts

VMX_PROC_VM_EXEC_CONTROLS

3

Use TSC offsetting

21

Use TPR shadow

25

Use I/O bitmaps

28

Use MSR bitmaps

31

Activate secondary controls

VMX_PROC_VM_EXEC_CONTROLS2

0

Virtualize APIC accesses

1

Enable EPT

3

Enable RDTSCP

5

Enable VPID

7

Unrestricted guest

8

APIC-register virtualization

9

Virtual-interrupt delivery

20

Enable XSAVES/XRSTORS

guest state

CS, DS, ES, FS, GS, TR, LDTR, GDTR, IDTR

n/a

According to vCPU mode and init_ctx

RIP, RSP

n/a

According to vCPU mode and init_ctx

CR0, CR3, CR4

n/a

According to vCPU mode and init_ctx

GUEST_IA32_SYSENTER_CS/ESP/EIP

n/a

Set to 0

GUEST_IA32_PAT

n/a

Set to PAT_POWER_ON_VALUE

entry control

VMX_ENTRY_CONTROLS

2

Load debug controls

14

Load IA32_PAT

15

Load IA23_EFER

exit control

VMX_EXIT_CONTROLS

2

Save debug controls

9

Host address space size

15

Acknowledge Interrupt on exit

18

Save IA32_PAT

19

Load IA32_PAT

20

Save IA32_EFER

21

Load IA32_EFER

CPUID Virtualization

CPUID access from a guest would cause VM exits unconditionally if executed as a VMX non-root operation. ACRN must return the emulated processor identification and feature information in the EAX, EBX, ECX, and EDX registers.

To simplify, ACRN returns the same values from the physical CPU for most of the CPUID, and specially handles a few CPUID features that are APIC ID related such as CPUID.01H.

ACRN emulates some extra CPUID features for the hypervisor as well.

The per-vm vcpuid_entries array is initialized during VM creation and used to cache most of the CPUID entries for each VM. During guest CPUID emulation, ACRN reads the cached value from this array, except some APIC ID-related CPUID data emulated at runtime.

This table describes details for CPUID emulation:

CPUID

Emulation Description

01H

  • Get original value from physical CPUID

  • Fill APIC ID from vLAPIC

  • Disable x2APIC

  • Disable PCID

  • Disable VMX

  • Disable XSAVE if host not enabled

0BH

  • Fill according to X2APIC feature support (default is disabled)

  • If not supported, fill all registers with 0

  • If supported, get from physical CPUID

0DH

  • Fill according to XSAVE feature support

  • If not supported, fill all registers with 0

  • If supported, get from physical CPUID

07H

  • Get from per-vm CPUID entries cache

  • For subleaf 0, disabled INVPCID, Intel RDT

16H

  • Get from per-vm CPUID entries cache

  • If physical CPU supports CPUID.16H, read from physical CPUID

  • If physical CPU does not support it, emulate with TSC frequency

40000000H

  • Get from per-vm CPUID entries cache

  • EAX: the maximum input value for CPUID supported by ACRN (40000010)

  • EBX, ECX, EDX: hypervisor vendor ID signature - “ACRNACRNACRN”

40000010H

  • Get from per-vm CPUID entries cache

  • EAX: virtual TSC frequency in kHz

  • EBX, ECX, EDX: reserved to 0

0AH

  • PMU disabled

0FH, 10H

  • Intel RDT disabled

12H

  • Fill according to SGX virtualization

14H

  • Intel Processor Trace disabled

Others

  • Get from per-vm CPUID entries cache

Note

ACRN needs to take care of some CPUID values that can change at runtime, for example, the XD feature in CPUID.80000001H may be cleared by the MISC_ENABLE MSR.

MSR Virtualization

ACRN always enables an MSR bitmap in the VMX_PROC_VM_EXEC_CONTROLS VMX execution control field. This bitmap marks the MSRs to cause a VM exit upon guest access for both read and write. The VM exit reason for reading or writing these MSRs is respectively VMX_EXIT_REASON_RDMSR or VMX_EXIT_REASON_WRMSR and the VM exit handler is rdmsr_vmexit_handler or wrmsr_vmexit_handler.

This table shows the predefined MSRs that ACRN will trap for all the guests. For the MSRs whose bitmap values are not set in the MSR bitmap, guest access will be passthrough directly:

MSR

Description

Handler

MSR_IA32_TSC_ADJUST

TSC adjustment of local APIC’s TSC deadline mode

Emulates with vLAPIC

MSR_IA32_TSC_DEADLINE

TSC target of local APIC’s TSC deadline mode

Emulates with vLAPIC

MSR_IA32_BIOS_UPDT_TRIG

BIOS update trigger

Update microcode from the Service VM, the signature ID read is from physical MSR, and a BIOS update trigger from the Service VM will trigger a physical microcode update.

MSR_IA32_BIOS_SIGN_ID

BIOS update signature ID

"

MSR_IA32_TIME_STAMP_COUNTER

Time-stamp counter

Work with VMX_TSC_OFFSET_FULL to emulate virtual TSC

MSR_IA32_APIC_BASE

APIC base address

Emulates with vLAPIC

MSR_IA32_PAT

Page-attribute table

Save/restore in vCPU, write to VMX_GUEST_IA32_PAT_FULL if cr0.cd is 0

MSR_IA32_PERF_CTL

Performance control

Trigger real P-state change if P-state is valid when writing, fetch physical MSR when reading

MSR_IA32_FEATURE_CONTROL

Feature control bits that configure operation of VMX and SMX

Disabled, locked

MSR_IA32_MCG_CAP/STATUS

Machine-Check global control/status

Emulates with vMCE

MSR_IA32_MISC_ENABLE

Miscellaneous feature control

Read-only, except MONITOR/MWAIT enable bit

MSR_IA32_SGXLEPUBKEYHASH0/1/2/3

SHA256 digest of the authorized launch enclaves

Emulates with vSGX

MSR_IA32_SGX_SVN_STATUS

Status and SVN threshold of SGX support for ACM

Read-only, emulates with vSGX

MSR_IA32_MTRR_CAP

Memory type range register related

Handled by MTRR emulation

MSR_IA32_MTRR_DEF_TYPE

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MSR_IA32_MTRR_PHYSBASE_0~9

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MSR_IA32_MTRR_FIX64K_00000

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MSR_IA32_MTRR_FIX16K_80000/A0000

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MSR_IA32_MTRR_FIX4K_C0000~F8000

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MSR_IA32_X2APIC_*

x2APIC related MSRs (offset from 0x800 to 0x900)

Emulates with vLAPIC

MSR_IA32_L2_MASK_BASE~n

L2 CAT mask for CLOSn

Disabled for guest access

MSR_IA32_L3_MASK_BASE~n

L3 CAT mask for CLOSn

Disabled for guest access

MSR_IA32_MBA_MASK_BASE~n

MBA delay mask for CLOSn

Disabled for guest access

MSR_IA32_VMX_BASIC~VMX_TRUE_ENTRY_CTLS

VMX related MSRs

Not supported, access will inject #GP

CR Virtualization

ACRN emulates mov to cr0, mov to cr4, mov to cr8, and mov from cr8 through cr_access_vmexit_handler based on VMX_EXIT_REASON_CR_ACCESS.

Note

mov to cr8 and mov from cr8 are not valid as CR8-load/store exiting bits are set as 0 in VMX_PROC_VM_EXEC_CONTROLS.

A VM can mov from cr0 and mov from cr4 without triggering a VM exit. The values read are the read shadows of the corresponding register in VMCS. The shadows are updated by the hypervisor on CR writes.

Operation

Handler

mov to cr0

Based on vCPU set context API: vcpu_set_cr0 -> vmx_write_cr0

mov to cr4

Based on vCPU set context API: vcpu_set_cr4 -> vmx_write_cr4

mov to cr8

Based on vLAPIC tpr API: vlapic_set_cr8 -> vlapic_set_tpr

mov from cr8

Based on vLAPIC tpr API: vlapic_get_cr8 -> vlapic_get_tpr

For mov to cr0 and mov to cr4, ACRN sets cr0_host_mask/cr4_host_mask into VMX_CR0_MASK/VMX_CR4_MASK for the bitmask causing VM exit.

As ACRN always enables unrestricted guest in VMX_PROC_VM_EXEC_CONTROLS2, CR0.PE and CR0.PG can be controlled by the guest.

CR0 MASK

Value

Comments

cr0_always_on_mask

fixed0 & (~(CR0_PE | CR0_PG))

fixed0 comes from MSR_IA32_VMX_CR0_FIXED0, these bits are fixed to be 1 under VMX operation.

cr0_always_off_mask

~fixed1

~fixed1 comes from MSR_IA32_VMX_CR0_FIXED1, these bits are fixed to be 0 under VMX operation.

CR0_TRAP_MASK

CR0_PE | CR0_PG | CR0_WP | CR0_CD | CR0_NW

ACRN will also trap PE, PG, WP, CD, and NW bits.

cr0_host_mask

~(fixed0 ^ fixed1) | CR0_TRAP_MASK

ACRN will finally trap bits under VMX root mode control plus additionally added bits.

For mov to cr0 emulation, ACRN will handle a paging mode change based on PG bit change, and a cache mode change based on CD and NW bits changes. ACRN also takes care of illegal writing from a guest to invalid CR0 bits (for example, set PG while CR4.PAE = 0 and IA32_EFER.LME = 1), which will finally inject a #GP to the guest. Finally, VMX_CR0_READ_SHADOW will be updated for guest reading of host controlled bits, and VMX_GUEST_CR0 will be updated for real vmx cr0 setting.

CR4 MASK

Value

Comments

cr4_always_on_mask

fixed0

fixed0 comes from MSR_IA32_VMX_CR4_FIXED0, these bits are fixed to be 1 under VMX operation

cr4_always_off_mask

~fixed1

~fixed1 comes from MSR_IA32_VMX_CR4_FIXED1, these bits are fixed to be 0 under VMX operation

CR4_TRAP_MASK

CR4_PSE | CR4_PAE | CR4_VMXE | CR4_PCIDE | CR4_SMEP | CR4_SMAP | CR4_PKE

ACRN will also trap PSE, PAE, VMXE, and PCIDE bits

cr4_host_mask

~(fixed0 ^ fixed1) | CR4_TRAP_MASK

ACRN will finally trap bits under VMX root mode control plus additionally added bits

The mov to cr4 emulation is similar to cr0 emulation noted above.

IO/MMIO Emulation

ACRN always enables an I/O bitmap in VMX_PROC_VM_EXEC_CONTROLS and EPT in VMX_PROC_VM_EXEC_CONTROLS2. Based on them, pio_instr_vmexit_handler and ept_violation_vmexit_handler are used for IO/MMIO emulation for an emulated device. The device can be emulated by the hypervisor or DM in the Service VM.

For a device emulated by the hypervisor, ACRN provides some basic APIs to register its IO/MMIO range:

  • For the Service VM, the default I/O bitmap values are all set to 0, which means the Service VM will passthrough all I/O port access by default. Adding an I/O handler for a hypervisor emulated device needs to first set its corresponding I/O bitmap to 1.

  • For the User VM, the default I/O bitmap values are all set to 1, which means the User VM will trap all I/O port access by default. Adding an I/O handler for a hypervisor emulated device does not need to change its I/O bitmap. If the trapped I/O port access does not fall into a hypervisor emulated device, it will create an I/O request and pass it to the Service VM DM.

  • For the Service VM, EPT maps the entire range of memory to the Service VM except for the ACRN hypervisor area. The Service VM will passthrough all MMIO access by default. Adding an MMIO handler for a hypervisor emulated device needs to first remove its MMIO range from EPT mapping.

  • For the User VM, EPT only maps its system RAM to the User VM, which means the User VM will trap all MMIO access by default. Adding an MMIO handler for a hypervisor emulated device does not need to change its EPT mapping. If the trapped MMIO access does not fall into a hypervisor emulated device, it will create an I/O request and pass it to the Service VM DM.

API

Description

register_pio_emulation_handler

Register an I/O emulation handler for a hypervisor emulated device by specific I/O range.

register_mmio_emulation_handler

Register an MMIO emulation handler for a hypervisor emulated device by specific MMIO range.

Instruction Emulation

ACRN implements a simple instruction emulation infrastructure for MMIO (EPT) and APIC access emulation. When such a VM exit is triggered, the hypervisor needs to decode the instruction from RIP then attempt the corresponding emulation based on its instruction and read/write direction.

ACRN supports emulating instructions for mov, movx, movs, stos, test, and, or, cmp, sub, and bittest without support for lock prefix. Real mode emulation is not supported.

../../_images/hld-image82.png

Figure 92 Instruction Emulation Work Flow

In the handlers for EPT violation or APIC access VM exit, ACRN will:

  1. Fetch the MMIO access request’s address and size.

  2. Do decode_instruction for the instruction in the current RIP with the following check:

    1. Is the instruction supported? If not, inject #UD to the guest.

    2. Is the GVA of RIP, dest, and src valid? If not, inject #PF to the guest.

    3. Is the stack valid? If not, inject #SS to the guest.

  3. If step 2 succeeds, check the access direction. If it’s a write, then do emulate_instruction to fetch the MMIO request’s value from instruction operands.

  4. Execute the MMIO request handler. For EPT violation, it is emulate_io. For APIC access, it is vlapic_write/read based on access direction. It will finally complete this MMIO request emulation by:

    1. putting req.val to req.addr for write operation

    2. getting req.val from req.addr for read operation

  5. If the access direction is read, then do emulate_instruction to put the MMIO request’s value into instruction operands.

  6. Return to the guest.

TSC Emulation

Guest vCPU execution of RDTSC/RDTSCP and access to MSR_IA32_TSC_AUX do not cause a VM Exit to the hypervisor. The hypervisor uses MSR_IA32_TSC_AUX to record CPU ID, thus the CPU ID provided by MSR_IA32_TSC_AUX might be changed via the guest.

RDTSCP is widely used by the hypervisor to identify the current CPU ID. Due to no VM Exit for the MSR_IA32_TSC_AUX MSR register, the ACRN hypervisor saves the MSR_IA32_TSC_AUX value on every VM Exit and restores it on every VM Enter. Before the hypervisor restores the host CPU ID, rdtscp should not be called as it could get the vCPU ID instead of the host CPU ID.

The MSR_IA32_TIME_STAMP_COUNTER is emulated by the ACRN hypervisor, with a simple implementation based on TSC_OFFSET (enabled in VMX_PROC_VM_EXEC_CONTROLS):

  • For read: val = rdtsc() + exec_vmread64(VMX_TSC_OFFSET_FULL)

  • For write: exec_vmwrite64(VMX_TSC_OFFSET_FULL, val - rdtsc())

ART Virtualization

The invariant TSC is based on the invariant timekeeping hardware (called Always Running Timer or ART), which runs at the core crystal clock frequency. The ratio defined by the CPUID leaf 15H expresses the frequency relationship between the ART hardware and the TSC.

If CPUID.15H.EBX[31:0] != 0 and CPUID.80000007H:EDX[InvariantTSC] = 1, the following linearity relationship holds between the TSC and the ART hardware:

TSC_Value = (ART_Value * CPUID.15H:EBX[31:0]) / CPUID.15H:EAX[31:0] + K

Where K is an offset that can be adjusted by a privileged agent. When ART hardware is reset, both invariant TSC and K are also reset.

The guideline of ART virtualization (vART) is that software in native can run in the VM too. The vART solution is:

  • Present the ART capability to the guest through CPUID leaf 15H for CPUID.15H:EBX[31:0] and CPUID.15H:EAX[31:0].

  • Passthrough devices see the physical ART_Value (vART_Value = pART_Value).

  • Relationship between the ART and TSC in the guest is: vTSC_Value = (vART_Value * CPUID.15H:EBX[31:0]) / CPUID.15H:EAX[31:0] + vK where vK = K + VMCS.TSC_OFFSET.

  • If the guest changes vK or vTSC_Value, we change the VMCS.TSC_OFFSET accordingly.

  • K should never be changed by the hypervisor.

XSAVE Emulation

The XSAVE feature set is composed of eight instructions:

  • XGETBV and XSETBV allow software to read and write the extended control register XCR0, which controls the operation of the XSAVE feature set.

  • XSAVE, XSAVEOPT, XSAVEC, and XSAVES are four instructions that save the processor state to memory.

  • XRSTOR and XRSTORS are corresponding instructions that load the processor state from memory.

  • XGETBV, XSAVE, XSAVEOPT, XSAVEC, and XRSTOR can be executed at any privilege level.

  • XSETBV, XSAVES, and XRSTORS can be executed only if CPL = 0.

Enabling the XSAVE feature set is controlled by XCR0 (through XSETBV) and IA32_XSS MSR. Refer to the Intel SDM Volume 1 chapter 13 for more details.

../../_images/hld-image38.png

Figure 93 ACRN Hypervisor XSAVE Emulation

By default, ACRN enables XSAVES/XRSTORS in VMX_PROC_VM_EXEC_CONTROLS2, so it allows the guest to use the XSAVE feature. Because guest execution of XSETBV will always trigger XSETBV VM exit, ACRN actually needs to take care of XCR0 access.

ACRN emulates XSAVE features through the following rules:

  1. Enumerate CPUID.01H for native XSAVE feature support.

  2. If yes for step 1, enable XSAVE in the hypervisor by CR4.OSXSAVE.

  3. Emulate XSAVE related CPUID.01H and CPUID.0DH to the guest.

  4. Emulate XCR0 access through xsetbv_vmexit_handler.

  5. Passthrough the access of IA32_XSS MSR to the guest.

  6. ACRN hypervisor does NOT use any feature of XSAVE.

  7. When ACRN emulates the vCPU with partition mode: based on above rules 5 and 6, a guest vCPU will fully control the XSAVE feature in non-root mode.