Important

This is the latest documentation for the unstable development branch of Project ACRN (master).
Use the drop-down menu on the left to select documentation for a stable release such as v2.7.

Enable S5 in ACRN

Introduction

S5 is one of the ACPI sleep states that refers to the system being shut down (although some power may still be supplied to certain devices). In this document, S5 means the function to shut down the User VMs, Service VM, the hypervisor, and the hardware. In most cases, directly powering off a computer system is not advisable because it can damage some components. It can cause corruption and put the system in an unknown or unstable state. On ACRN, the User VM must be shut down before powering off the Service VM. Especially for some use cases, where User VMs could be used in industrial control or other high safety requirement environment, a graceful system shutdown such as the ACRN S5 function is required.

S5 Architecture

ACRN provides a mechanism to trigger the S5 state transition throughout the system. It uses a vUART channel to communicate between the Service VM and User VMs. The diagram below shows the overall architecture:

../_images/s5_overall_architecture.png

Figure 8 S5 Overall Architecture

vUART channel:

The User VM’s serial port device (/dev/ttySn) is emulated in the hypervisor. The channel from the Service VM to the User VM:

digraph G {
   node [shape=plaintext fontsize=12];
   rankdir=LR;
   bgcolor="transparent";
   "Service VM:/dev/ttyS8" -> "ACRN hypervisor" -> "User VM:/dev/ttyS1" [arrowsize=.5];
}

Lifecycle Manager Overview

As part of the S5 reference design, a Lifecycle Manager daemon (life_mngr in Linux, life_mngr_win.exe in Windows) runs in the Service VM and User VMs to implement S5. You can use the s5_trigger_linux.py or s5_trigger_win.py script to initialize a system S5 in the Service VM or User VMs. The Lifecycle Manager in the Service VM and User VMs wait for the system S5 request on the local socket port.

Initiate a System S5 from within a User VM (e.g., HMI)

As shown in Figure 8, a request to the Service VM initiates the shutdown flow. This request could come from a User VM, most likely the human machine interface (HMI) running Windows or Linux. When a human operator initiates the flow by running s5_trigger_linux.py or s5_trigger_win.py, the Lifecycle Manager (life_mngr) running in that User VM sends the system S5 request via the vUART to the Lifecycle Manager in the Service VM which in turn acknowledges the request. The Lifecycle Manager in the Service VM sends a poweroff_cmd request to each User VM. When the Lifecycle Manager in a User VM receives the poweroff_cmd request, it sends ack_poweroff to the Service VM; then it shuts down the User VM. If a User VM is not ready to shut down, it can ignore the poweroff_cmd request.

Note

The User VM needs to be authorized to be able to request a system S5. This is achieved by configuring ALLOW_TRIGGER_S5 in the Lifecycle Manager service configuration /etc/life_mngr.conf in the Service VM. Only one User VM in the system can be configured to request a shutdown. If this configuration is wrong, the Lifecycle Manager of the Service VM rejects the system S5 request from the User VM. The following error message is recorded in the Lifecycle Manager log /var/log/life_mngr.log of the Service VM: The user VM is not allowed to trigger system shutdown.

Initiate a System S5 within the Service VM

On the Service VM side, it uses the s5_trigger_linux.py to trigger the system S5 flow. Then, the Lifecycle Manager in the Service VM sends a poweroff_cmd request to the Lifecycle Manager in each User VM through the vUART channel. When the User VM receives this request, it sends an ack_poweroff to the Lifecycle Manager in the Service VM. The Service VM checks whether the User VMs shut down successfully or not, and decides when to shut itself down.

Note

The Service VM is always allowed to trigger system S5 by default.

Enable S5

  1. Configure communication vUARTs for the Service VM and User VMs:

    Add these lines in the hypervisor scenario XML file manually:

    Example:

    /* VM0 */
    <vm_type>SERVICE_VM</vm_type>
    ...
    <legacy_vuart id="1">
       <type>VUART_LEGACY_PIO</type>
       <base>CONFIG_COM_BASE</base>
       <irq>0</irq>
       <target_vm_id>1</target_vm_id>
       <target_uart_id>1</target_uart_id>
    </legacy_vuart>
    <legacy_vuart id="2">
      <type>VUART_LEGACY_PIO</type>
      <base>CONFIG_COM_BASE</base>
      <irq>0</irq>
      <target_vm_id>2</target_vm_id>
      <target_uart_id>2</target_uart_id>
    </legacy_vuart>
    ...
    /* VM1 */
    <vm_type>POST_STD_VM</vm_type>
    ...
    <legacy_vuart id="1">
       <type>VUART_LEGACY_PIO</type>
       <base>COM2_BASE</base>
       <irq>COM2_IRQ</irq>
       <target_vm_id>0</target_vm_id>
       <target_uart_id>1</target_uart_id>
    </legacy_vuart>
    ...
    /* VM2 */
    <vm_type>POST_STD_VM</vm_type>
    ...
    <legacy_vuart id="1">
       <type>VUART_LEGACY_PIO</type>
       <base>INVALID_COM_BASE</base>
       <irq>COM2_IRQ</irq>
       <target_vm_id>0</target_vm_id>
       <target_uart_id>2</target_uart_id>
    </legacy_vuart>
    <legacy_vuart id="2">
       <type>VUART_LEGACY_PIO</type>
       <base>COM2_BASE</base>
       <irq>COM2_IRQ</irq>
       <target_vm_id>0</target_vm_id>
       <target_uart_id>2</target_uart_id>
    </legacy_vuart>
    ...
    /* VM3 */
    ...
    

    Note

    These vUARTs are emulated in the hypervisor; expose the node as /dev/ttySn. For the User VM with the lowest VM ID, the communication vUART id should be 1. For other User VMs, the vUART (id is 1) should be configured as invalid; the communication vUART id should be 2 or higher.

  2. Build the Lifecycle Manager daemon, life_mngr:

    cd acrn-hypervisor
    make life_mngr
    
  3. For the Service VM, LaaG VM, and RT-Linux VM, run the Lifecycle Manager daemon:

    1. Copy life_mngr.conf, s5_trigger_linux.py, life_mngr, and life_mngr.service into the Service VM and User VMs. These commands assume you have a network connection between the development computer and target. You can also use a USB stick to transfer files.

      scp build/misc/services/s5_trigger_linux.py root@<target board address>:~/
      scp build/misc/services/life_mngr root@<target board address>:/usr/bin/
      scp build/misc/services/life_mngr.conf root@<target board address>:/etc/life_mngr/
      scp build/misc/services/life_mngr.service root@<target board address>:/lib/systemd/system/
      
    2. Copy user_vm_shutdown.py into the Service VM.

      scp misc/services/life_mngr/user_vm_shutdown.py root@<target board address>:~/
      
    3. Edit options in /etc/life_mngr/life_mngr.conf in the Service VM.

      VM_TYPE=service_vm
      VM_NAME=Service_VM
      DEV_NAME=tty:/dev/ttyS8,/dev/ttyS9,/dev/ttyS10,/dev/ttyS11,/dev/ttyS12,/dev/ttyS13,/dev/ttyS14
      ALLOW_TRIGGER_S5=/dev/ttySn
      

      Note

      The mapping between User VM ID and communication serial device name (/dev/ttySn) is in the /etc/serial.conf. If /dev/ttySn is configured in the ALLOW_TRIGGER_S5, this means system shutdown is allowed to be triggered in the corresponding User VM.

    4. Edit options in /etc/life_mngr/life_mngr.conf in the User VM.

      VM_TYPE=user_vm
      VM_NAME=<User VM name>
      DEV_NAME=tty:/dev/ttyS1
      #ALLOW_TRIGGER_S5=/dev/ttySn
      

      Note

      The User VM name in this configuration file should be consistent with the VM name in the launch script for the Post-launched User VM or the VM name which is specified in the hypervisor scenario XML for the Pre-launched User VM.

    5. Use the following commands to enable life_mngr.service and restart the Service VM and User VMs.

      sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/life_mngr
      sudo systemctl enable life_mngr.service
      sudo reboot
      

      Note

      For the Pre-launched User VM, restart the Lifecycle Manager service manually after the Lifecycle Manager in the Service VM starts.

  4. For the WaaG VM, run the Lifecycle Manager daemon:

    1. Build the life_mngr_win.exe application and s5_trigger_win.py:

      cd acrn-hypervisor
      make life_mngr
      

      Note

      If there is no x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc compiler, you can run sudo apt install gcc-mingw-w64-x86-64 on Ubuntu to install it.

    2. Copy s5_trigger_win.py into the WaaG VM.

    3. Set up a Windows environment:

      1. Download the Python3 from https://www.python.org/downloads/release/python-3810/, install “Python 3.8.10” in WaaG.

      2. If the Lifecycle Manager for WaaG will be built in Windows, download the Visual Studio 2019 tool from https://visualstudio.microsoft.com/downloads/, and choose the two options in the below screenshots to install “Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015, 2017 and 2019 (x86 or X64)” in WaaG:

        ../_images/Microsoft-Visual-C-install-option-1.png
        ../_images/Microsoft-Visual-C-install-option-2.png

        Note

        If the Lifecycle Manager for WaaG is built in Linux, the Visual Studio 2019 tool is not needed for WaaG.

      3. In WaaG, use the Windows + R shortcut key, input shell:startup, click OK and then copy the life_mngr_win.exe application into this directory.

        ../_images/run-shell-startup.png
        ../_images/launch-startup.png
    4. Restart the WaaG VM. The COM2 window will automatically open after reboot.

      ../_images/open-com-success.png
  5. If s5_trigger_linux.py is run in the Service VM, the Service VM shuts down (transitioning to the S5 state) and sends a poweroff request to shut down the User VMs.

    Note

    S5 state is not automatically triggered by a Service VM shutdown; you need to run s5_trigger_linux.py in the Service VM.

How to Test

As described in Enable vUART Configurations, two vUARTs are defined for a User VM in pre-defined ACRN scenarios: vUART0/ttyS0 for the console and vUART1/ttyS1 for S5-related communication (as shown in S5 Overall Architecture).

For Yocto Project (Poky) or Ubuntu rootfs, the serial-getty service for ttyS1 conflicts with the S5-related communication use of vUART1. We can eliminate the conflict by preventing that service from being started either automatically or manually, by masking the service using this command:

systemctl mask serial-getty@ttyS1.service
  1. Refer to the Enable S5 section to set up the S5 environment for the User VMs.

    Note

    Use the systemctl status life_mngr.service command to ensure the service is working on the LaaG or RT-Linux:

    * life_mngr.service - ACRN lifemngr daemon
    Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/life_mngr.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
    Active: active (running) since Thu 2021-11-11 12:43:53 CST; 36s ago
    Main PID: 197397 (life_mngr)
    

    Note

    For WaaG, you need to close windbg by using the bcdedit /set debug off command IF you executed the bcdedit /set debug on command when you set up the WaaG, because it occupies the COM2.

  2. Run user_vm_shutdown.py in the Service VM to shut down the User VMs:

    sudo python3 ~/user_vm_shutdown.py <User VM name>
    

    Note

    The User VM name is configured in the life_mngr.conf of the User VM. For the WaaG VM, the User VM name is “windows”.

  3. Run the acrnctl list command to check the User VM status.

    sudo acrnctl list
    

    Output example:

    <User VM name>            stopped
    

System Shutdown

Using a coordinating script, s5_trigger_linux.py or s5_trigger_win.py, in conjunction with the Lifecycle Manager in each VM, graceful system shutdown can be performed.

In the hybrid_rt scenario, operator can use the script to send a system shutdown request via /var/lib/life_mngr/monitor.sock to a User VM that is configured to be allowed to trigger system S5. This system shutdown request is forwarded to the Service VM. The Service VM sends a poweroff request to each User VM (Pre-launched VM or Post-launched VM) through vUART. The Lifecycle Manager in the User VM receives the poweroff request, sends an ack message, and proceeds to shut itself down accordingly.

../_images/system_shutdown.png

Figure 9 Graceful System Shutdown Flow

  1. The HMI in the Windows User VM uses s5_trigger_win.py to send a system shutdown request to the Lifecycle Manager. The Lifecycle Manager forwards this request to the Lifecycle Manager in the Service VM.

  2. The Lifecycle Manager in the Service VM responds with an ack message and sends a poweroff_cmd request to the Windows User VM.

  3. After receiving the poweroff_cmd request, the Lifecycle Manager in the Windows User VM responds with an ack message, then shuts down the VM.

  4. The Lifecycle Manager in the Service VM sends a poweroff_cmd request to the Linux User VM.

  5. After receiving the poweroff_cmd request, the Lifecycle Manager in the Linux User VM responds with an ack message, then shuts down the VM.

  6. The Lifecycle Manager in the Service VM sends a poweroff_cmd request to the Pre-launched RTVM.

  7. After receiving the poweroff_cmd request, the Lifecycle Manager in the Pre-launched RTVM responds with an ack message.

  8. The Lifecycle Manager in the Pre-launched RTVM shuts down the VM using ACPI PM registers.

  9. After receiving the ack message from all User VMs, the Lifecycle Manager in the Service VM shuts down the VM.

  10. The hypervisor shuts down the system after all VMs have shut down.

Note

If one or more virtual functions (VFs) of a SR-IOV device, e.g., GPU on Alder Lake platform, are assigned to User VMs, take extra steps to disable all VFs before the Service VM shuts down. Otherwise, the Service VM may fail to shut down due to some enabled VFs.