As an open-source project, we welcome and encourage the community to submit patches directly to project ACRN. In our collaborative open source environment, standards and methods for submitting changes help reduce the chaos that can result from an active development community.
This document explains how to participate in project conversations, log and track bugs and enhancement requests, and submit patches to the project so your patch will be accepted quickly in the codebase.
Licensing is very important to open source projects. It helps ensure the software continues to be available under the terms that the author desired.
Project ACRN uses a BSD-3-Clause license, as found in the LICENSE in the project’s GitHub repo.
A license tells you what rights you have as a developer, as provided by the copyright holder. It is important that the contributor fully understands the licensing rights and agrees to them. Sometimes the copyright holder isn’t the contributor, such as when the contributor is doing work on behalf of a company.
Developer Certification of Origin (DCO)¶
To make a good faith effort to ensure licensing criteria are met, project ACRN requires the Developer Certificate of Origin (DCO) process to be followed.
The DCO is an attestation attached to every contribution made by every
developer. In the commit message of the contribution, (described more
fully later in this document), the developer simply adds a
Signed-off-by statement and thereby agrees to the DCO.
When a developer submits a patch, it is a commitment that the contributor has the right to submit the patch per the license. The DCO agreement is shown below and at http://developercertificate.org/.
Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1 By making a contribution to this project, I certify that: (a) The contribution was created in whole or in part by me and I have the right to submit it under the open source license indicated in the file; or (b) The contribution is based upon previous work that, to the best of my knowledge, is covered under an appropriate open source license and I have the right under that license to submit that work with modifications, whether created in whole or in part by me, under the same open source license (unless I am permitted to submit under a different license), as Indicated in the file; or (c) The contribution was provided directly to me by some other person who certified (a), (b) or (c) and I have not modified it. (d) I understand and agree that this project and the contribution are public and that a record of the contribution (including all personal information I submit with it, including my sign-off) is maintained indefinitely and may be redistributed consistent with this project or the open source license(s) involved.
DCO Sign-Off Methods¶
The DCO requires that a sign-off message, in the following format, appears on each commit in the pull request:
Signed-off-by: Acrnus Jones <email@example.com>
The DCO text can either be manually added to your commit body, or you can add
--signoff to your usual Git commit commands. If you forget
to add the sign-off you can also amend a previous commit with the sign-off by
git commit --amend -s. If you’ve pushed your changes to GitHub
already you’ll need to force push your branch after this with
git push -f.
The name and email address of the account you use to submit your PR must
match the name and email address on the
Signed-off-by line in
your commit message.
As a contributor, you’ll want to be familiar with project ACRN, how to configure, install, and use it as explained on the project ACRN website, and how to set up your development environment as introduced in the project ACRN Getting Started Guide.
You should be familiar with common developer tools such as Git and platforms such as GitHub.
If you haven’t already done so, you’ll need to create a (free) GitHub account on https://github.com and have Git tools available on your development system.
To clone the ACRN hypervisor repository (including the
doc folders) use:
$ git clone https://github.com/projectacrn/acrn-hypervisor
In addition to the ACRN hypervisor and device model itself, you’ll also find the sources for technical documentation available from the ACRN documentation site. All of these are available for developers to contribute to and enhance.
Issue tracking for project ACRN bugs or enhancement requests is done using GitHub issues in the ACRN hypervisor issues list. Before submitting a bug or enhancement request, first check to see what’s already been reported, and add to that discussion if you have additional information. (Be sure to check both the “open” and “closed” issues.) You should also read through discussions in the ACRN-dev mailing list to see what’s been reported on or discussed. You may find others that have encountered the issue you’re finding, or that have similar ideas for changes or additions.
If you don’t find an existing issue listed in the ACRN hypervisor issues list, then click on the “New Issue” button and provide a summary title and more detailed description of your bug or enhancement request.
When you submit an issue (bug or feature request), the triage team will review and comment on the submission, typically within a few business days. Use the ACRN hypervisor issues list to track the status of your submitted issues as well, or to add additional comments.
Contribution Tools and Git Setup¶
If you’ll be submitting code patches, you may need to install the git-email package for easier patch submission. On Ubuntu, for example use:
$ sudo apt install git-email
and then configure Git` with your SMTP server information as described in the Git send-email documentation.
The name in the commit message
Signed-off-by: line and your email must
match the change authorship information. Make sure your
is set up correctly by using:
$ git config --global user.name "David Developer" $ git config --global user.email "firstname.lastname@example.org"
All commits must be mapped to a GitHub issue for a feature or bug. Add a Tracked-On: #issue-number line to your commit message together with the issue number, for example:
Use these coding guidelines to ensure that your development complies with the project’s style and naming conventions.
In general, follow the Linux kernel coding style, with the following exceptions:
- Add braces to every
elsebody, even for single-line code blocks.
- Use spaces instead of tabs to align comments after declarations, as needed.
- Use C89-style single line comments,
/* */. The C99-style single line comment,
//, is not allowed.
/** */for doxygen comments that need to appear in the documentation.
- The line limit is 120 columns instead of 80 columns. Note that tabs are 8-column wide.
You can use checkpatch from Linux kernel to check the compliance. ACRN
maintains a .checkpatch.conf file
that customizes the script to stop warnings on
the exceptions above. Invoke checkpatch with the root of
repository as the current working directory to make the configurations
One general practice we encourage, is to make small, controlled changes. This practice simplifies review, makes merging and rebasing easier, and keeps the change history clear and clean.
When contributing to project ACRN, it is also important you provide as much information as you can about your change, update appropriate documentation, and test your changes thoroughly before submitting.
Documentation changes should also be checked for technical accuracy, spelling, grammar, and clarity and that the Documentation Guidelines are being followed. It’s also good practice to do a local documentation build to verify the changes don’t cause the build to fail. See ACRN documentation generation for details.
The general GitHub workflow used by project ACRN developers uses a combination of command line Git commands and browser interaction with GitHub. As it is with Git, there are multiple ways of getting a task done. We’ll describe a typical workflow here for the acrn-hypervisor repo, which includes the source files for the hypervisor, devicemodel, and documentation.
Both code and documentation changes follow the same steps shown here, with one exception: before submitting a GitHub pull request (PR) with your changes, all code changes are first sent to the ACRN developer mailing list for discussion and review. After obtaining the proper Reviewed-by: and Acked-by: approvals, code patches may then be submitted as a GitHub PR. Documentation changes should be submitted separately from code changes, and are reviewed via GitHub comments to the PR.
Create a Fork of acrn-hypervisor to your personal account on GitHub. (Click on the fork button in the top right corner of the project acrn-hypervisor repo page in GitHub.) When you want to submit a pull request with your changes, you’ll first submit them to your personal branch, and then to the project’s main branch for review and merging by the ACRN maintainers.
On your development computer, clone the fork you just made:
$ git clone https://github.com/<your github id>/acrn-hypervisor
This would be a good time to let Git know about the upstream repo too:
$ git remote add upstream https://github.com/projectacrn/acrn-hypervisor.git
and verify the remote repos:
$ git remote -v
Create a topic branch (off of the main branch) for your work (if you’re addressing an issue, we suggest including the issue number in the branch name):
$ git checkout master $ git checkout -b fix_comment_typo
Give your branch a short descriptive name.
Make changes, test locally, change, test, test again, …
When things look good, start the pull request process by checking which files have not been staged:
$ git status
Then add the changed files:
$ git add [file(s) that changed]
(or to have all changed files staged, use):
$ git add -A
Verify changes to be committed look as you expected:
$ git diff --cached
Commit your changes to your local repo:
$ git commit -s
-soption automatically adds your
Signed-off-by:to your commit message. Your commit will be rejected without this line that indicates your agreement with the DCO. See the Commit Guidelines section below for specific guidelines for writing your commit messages.
All commits must be mapped to a GitHub issue for a feature or bug. Add a
Tracked-On: #issue-numberline to your commit message together with the issue number, for example:
If only documentation changes are made, your PR can be submitted without review on the ACRN developer mailing list, so you can skip directly to step 9.
As mentioned earlier, all code changes must first be reviewed and approved via the developer mailing list. This review process is started by sending a patch file for each commit, as created by the
git format-patchcommand. For example if your change is contained in one commit, create a patch file (in
/tmp, or some other location) with the command:
$ git format-patch -o /tmp/ -1
Then email the generated
.patchfile(s) to the ACRN developer mailing list, email@example.com using the
git send-emailcommand. (See the Git send-email documentation for details. For example:
$ git send-email /tmp/000*.patch --to firstname.lastname@example.org
You can see examples of change requests and discussions in the ACRN developer mailing list archive.
After all review issues have been resolved, amend your commit with necessary changes and also update the commit message with approvals given in the mailing list discussion by adding Reviewed-by: and Acked-by: tags.
You can then proceed to the next step and submit a Git pull request to the repo.
Push your topic branch with your changes to your fork in your personal GitHub account:
$ git push origin fix_comment_typo
In your web browser, go to your personal forked repo and click on the Compare & pull request button for the branch you just worked on and you want to submit to the upstream ACRN repo.
Review the pull request changes, and verify that you are opening a pull request for the appropriate branch. The title and message from your commit message should appear as well.
GitHub will assign one or more suggested reviewers (based on the CODEOWNERS file in the repo). If you are a project member, you can select additional reviewers now too. If no reviewers are selected, the ACRN triage team will assign reviewers as appropriate.
Click on the submit button and your pull request is sent and awaits review. For code changes, this review should be cursory since any issues were handled via the mailing list review. Email will be sent as review comments are made, or you can check on your pull request at https://github.com/projectacrn/acrn-hypervisor/pulls.
While you’re waiting for your pull request to be accepted and merged, you can create another branch to work on another issue. (Be sure to make your new branch off of the main branch and not the previous branch.):
$ git checkout master $ git checkout -b fix_another_issue
and use the same process described above to work on this new topic branch.
If reviewers request changes to your patch, you can interactively rebase commit(s) to fix review issues. In your development repo, make the needed changes on the branch you made the initial submission:
$ git checkout fix-comment-typo
make the requested changes, and then:
$ git fetch --all $ git rebase --ignore-whitespace upstream/master
This is an important step to make sure your changes are properly merged with changes from other developers that may have happened while you were working on your changes. The
git apply(called by rebase) from changing any whitespace characters (such as spaces, tabs, and newlines). If any merging issues are detected you can address them with:
$ git rebase -i <offending-commit-id>
In the interactive rebase editor, replace pick with edit to select a specific commit (if there’s more than one in your pull request), or remove the line to delete a commit entirely. Then edit files to fix the issues in the review.
As before, inspect and test your changes. When ready, continue the patch submission:
$ git add [file(s)] $ git rebase --continue
Update commit comment if needed, and continue:
$ git push --force origin fix_comment_typo
By force pushing your update, your original pull request will be updated with your changes so you won’t need to resubmit the pull request.
You can follow the same workflow for contributing to acrn-devicemodel or acrn-documentation repos.
Changes are submitted as Git commits. Each commit message must contain:
A short and descriptive subject line that is less than 72 characters, followed by a blank line. The subject line must include a prefix that identifies the subsystem being changed, followed by a colon, and a short title, for example:
doc: update commit guidelines instructions. (If you’re updating an existing file, you can use
git log <filename>to see what developers used as the prefix for previous patches of this file.)
A change description with your logic or reasoning for the changes, followed by a blank line.
A Signed-off-by line,
Signed-off-by: <name> <email>typically added automatically by using
git commit -s
For traceability, all changes must include reference to a GitHub issue. Include a line of the form:
All changes and topics sent to GitHub must be well-formed, as described above.
Commit Message Body¶
When editing the commit message, please briefly explain what your change
does and why it’s needed. A change summary of
"Fixes stuff" will be rejected.
An empty change summary body is not permitted. Even for trivial changes, please include a summary body in the commit message.
The description body of the commit message must include:
- what the change does,
- why you chose that approach,
- what assumptions were made, and
- how you know it works – for example, which tests you ran.
For examples of accepted commit messages, you can refer to the acrn-hypervisor GitHub changelog.
Other Commit Expectations¶
- Commits must build cleanly when applied on top of each other, thus avoiding breaking bisectability.
- Each commit must address a single identifiable issue and must be logically self-contained. Unrelated changes should be submitted as separate commits.
- You may submit pull request RFCs (requests for comments) to send work proposals, progress snapshots of your work, or to get early feedback on features or changes that will affect multiple areas in the code base.
Identifying Contribution Origin¶
When adding a new file to the tree, it is important to detail the source of origin on the file, provide attributions, and detail the intended usage. In cases where the file is an original to acrn-hypervisor, the commit message should include the following (“Original” is the assumption if no Origin tag is present):
In cases where the file is imported from an external project, the commit message shall contain details regarding the original project, the location of the project, the SHA-id of the origin commit for the file, the intended purpose, and if the file will be maintained by the acrn-hypervisor project, (whether or not project ACRN will contain a localized branch or if it is a downstream copy).
For example, a copy of a locally maintained import:
Origin: Contiki OS License: BSD 3-Clause URL: http://www.contiki-os.org/ commit: 853207acfdc6549b10eb3e44504b1a75ae1ad63a Purpose: Introduction of networking stack. Maintained-by: acrn-hypervisor
For example, a copy of an externally maintained import:
Origin: Tiny Crypt License: BSD 3-Clause URL: https://github.com/01org/tinycrypt commit: 08ded7f21529c39e5133688ffb93a9d0c94e5c6e Purpose: Introduction of TinyCrypt Maintained-by: External