Tracing and Logging High-Level Design¶
Both Trace and Log are built on top of a mechanism named shared buffer (sbuf).
ACRNTrace is a tool running on the Service VM to capture trace data. It allows developers to add performance profiling trace points at key locations to get a picture of what is going on inside the hypervisor. Scripts to analyze the collected trace data are also provided.
As shown in Figure 221, ACRNTrace is built using Shared Buffers (sbuf), and consists of three parts from bottom layer up:
ACRNTrace userland app: Userland application collecting trace data to files (Per Physical CPU)
Service VM Trace Module: allocates/frees sbufs, creates device for each sbuf, sets up sbuf shared between Service VM and HV, and provides a dev node for the userland app to retrieve trace data from sbuf
Trace APIs: provide APIs to generate trace event and insert to sbuf.
for trace_entry struct and function APIs.
Service VM Trace Module¶
The Service VM trace module is responsible for:
allocating sbuf in Service VM memory range for each physical CPU, and assign the GPA of sbuf to
create a misc device for each physical CPU
provide mmap operation to map entire sbuf to userspace for high flexible and efficient access.
On Service VM shutdown, the trace module is responsible to remove misc devices, free
sbufs, and set
per_cpu sbuf[ACRN_TRACE] to null.
ACRNTrace application includes a binary to retrieve trace data from sbuf, and Python scripts to convert trace data from raw format into readable text, and do analysis.
With a debug build, trace components are initialized at boot time. After initialization, HV writes trace event date into sbuf until sbuf is full, which can happen easily if the ACRNTrace app is not consuming trace data from sbuf on Service VM user space.
Once ACRNTrace is launched, for each physical CPU a consumer thread is created to periodically read RAW trace data from sbuf and write to a file.
These are the Python scripts provided:
acrntrace_format.py converts RAW trace data to human-readable text offline according to given format;
acrnalyze.py analyzes trace data (as output by acrntrace) based on given analyzer filters, such as vm_exit or IRQ, and generates a report.
See Acrntrace for details and usage.
acrnlog is a tool used to capture ACRN hypervisor log to files on
Service VM filesystem. It can run as a Service VM service at boot, capturing two
kinds of logs:
Current runtime logs;
Logs remaining in the buffer, from the last crashed run.
Similar to the design of ACRN Trace, ACRN Log is built on top of Shared Buffer (sbuf), and consists of three parts from bottom layer up:
ACRN Log app: Userland application collecting hypervisor log to files;
Service VM ACRN Log Module: constructs/frees sbufs at reserved memory area, creates dev for current/last logs, sets up sbuf shared between Service VM and HV, and provides a dev node for the userland app to retrieve logs
ACRN log support in HV: put logs at specified loglevel to sbuf.
ACRN Log Support in Hypervisor¶
acrnlog, the following adaption was made to hypervisor log
log messages with severity level higher than a specified value will be put into sbuf when calling
allocate sbuf to accommodate early hypervisor logs before Service VM can allocate and set up sbuf
There are 6 different loglevels, as shown below. The specified
severity loglevel is stored in
hv.DEBUG_OPTIONS.MEM_LOGLEVEL. The loglevel can
be set to a new value
at runtime via hypervisor shell command
#define LOG_FATAL 1U
#define LOG_ACRN 2U
#define LOG_ERROR 3U
#define LOG_WARNING 4U
#define LOG_INFO 5U
#define LOG_DEBUG 6U
The element size of sbuf for logs is fixed at 80 bytes, and the max size of a single log message is 320 bytes. Log messages with a length between 80 and 320 bytes will be separated into multiple sbuf elements. Log messages with length larger than 320 will be truncated.
For security, Service VM allocates sbuf in its memory range and assigns it to the hypervisor.
Service VM ACRN Log Module¶
ACRNLog module provides one kernel option hvlog=$size@$pbase to configure the size and base address of hypervisor log buffer. This space will be further divided into two buffers with equal size: last log buffer and current log buffer.
On Service VM boot, Service VM acrnlog module is responsible to:
examine if there are log messages remaining from last crashed run by checking the magic number of each sbuf
if there are previous crash logs, construct sbuf and create misc devices for these last logs
construct sbuf in the usable buf range for each physical CPU, assign the GPA of sbuf to
per_cpu sbuf[ACRN_LOG]and create a misc device for each physical CPU
the misc devices implement read() file operation to allow userspace app to read one sbuf element.
When checking the validity of sbuf for last logs examination, it sets the
current sbuf with magic number
0x5aa57aa71aa13aa3, and changes the
magic number of last sbuf to
0x5aa57aa71aa13aa2, to distinguish which is
On Service VM shutdown, the module is responsible to remove misc devices,
free sbufs, and set
per_cpu sbuf[ACRN_TRACE] to null.
ACRN Log Application¶
ACRNLog application reads log messages from sbuf for each physical CPU and combines them into log files with log messages in ascending order by the global sequence number. If the sequence number is not continuous, a warning of “incontinuous logs” will be inserted.
To avoid using up storage space, the size of a single log file and the total number of log files are both limited. By default, log file size limitation is 1MB and file number limitation is 4.
If there are last log devices, ACRN log will read out the log messages, combine them, and save them into last log files.
See Acrnlog for usage details.